Book Details Sample Application


Book Details Sample Application

In this tutorial, we are going to discuss about virtual services, gateway configuration and destination rules by deploying the book details sample application as a part of the cluster.

While discussing about Istio installation we deployed a sample application, that is book details sample application.

Now, let us have some detailed understanding. Within the application we had 4 microservices that is 1 product page made of Python and 3 versions of reviews made of Java and details page made of Ruby and the ratings made with node JS.

Book Details Sample Application Overview

We don’t need to worry about the technology by which these microservices are deployed. All we need to worry is how the functionality can be controlled using the Istio.

So within Java we do have 3 versions of microservices. That is version 1, version 2 and version 3. The way how we can identify is version 1 is not going to display any stars and version 2 is going to display the stars in black color and version 3 going to display the stars in red color.

So we call that as subset within that particular services. Why do we need that specific subset? That will be controlled within the destination rules what subset can be accessed and what percentage of the requests can be accessed and who can access. All that control can be done using that specific subset.

And whenever I am deploying the application, the application will get deployed behind the ingress controller and by default, the ingress controller not going to allow any traffic into the cluster.

So to allow the traffic we need to create the gateway. Let’s create the entities one after the other. I am into the server. Let me list what are all the entities available.

[email protected]:~$ kubectl get all
NAME                 TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
service/kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.152.183.1   <none>        443/TCP   4h46m
Deploy the sample application

So here, I do not have any services or deployment or pods. Let me go ahead and deploy the sample application bookinfo.yaml.

[email protected]:~/istio-1.10.0# kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/platform/kube/bookinfo.yaml
service/details created
serviceaccount/bookinfo-details created
deployment.apps/details-v1 created
service/ratings created
serviceaccount/bookinfo-ratings created
deployment.apps/ratings-v1 created
service/reviews created
serviceaccount/bookinfo-reviews created
deployment.apps/reviews-v1 created
deployment.apps/reviews-v2 created
deployment.apps/reviews-v3 created
service/productpage created
serviceaccount/bookinfo-productpage created
deployment.apps/productpage-v1 created

I deployed within the default namespace itself so all the entities should get created. Within each pod I am going to have two containers the reason because Istio is enabled.

[email protected]:~/istio-1.10.0# kubectl get pods
NAME                              READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
details-v1-79f774bdb9-c4vn8       2/2     Running   0          20s
productpage-v1-6b746f74dc-92qn8   2/2     Running   0          20s
ratings-v1-b6994bb9-cnggv         2/2     Running   0          19s
reviews-v1-545db77b95-62vs4       2/2     Running   0          20s
reviews-v2-7bf8c9648f-mmp2h       2/2     Running   0          20s
reviews-v3-84779c7bbc-l2pbr       2/2     Running   0          20s

So by default it’s going to inject the proxy as well. So once the containers get created. We will get into the yaml file and have some better understanding. You can refer Git hub repository here where all the required services, pods everything will get created.

We don’t need to worry about the internal details. It’s a sample application. As it is, I am going to execute. So the next thing that I’m going to create is the destination rules.

Destination Rules

You can refer here for complete destination rules. So whenever I’m going to access the product page that should land with the subset version 1 with the label v1.

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: DestinationRule
metadata:
  name: productpage
spec:
  host: productpage
  subsets:
    - name: v1
      labels:
        version: v1

The same way I do have reviews and I am going to create three subsets. That is subsets for version 1, version 2, version 3.

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: DestinationRule
metadata:
  name: reviews
spec:
  host: reviews
  subsets:
    - name: v1
      labels:
        version: v1
    - name: v2
      labels:
        version: v2
    - name: v3
      labels:
        version: v3

So here name: v1 is just the name and within the name v1, I am going to use the label version as v1 as the subset. Similarly for v2 and v3 as well.

And coming to the ratings destination rules,

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: DestinationRule
metadata:
  name: ratings
spec:
  host: ratings
  subsets:
    - name: v1
      labels:
        version: v1
    - name: v2
      labels:
        version: v2
    - name: v2-mysql
      labels:
        version: v2-mysql
    - name: v2-mysql-vm
      labels:
        version: v2-mysql-vm

These are all the subset that I am defining what is the version that should be used for any specific name of that subset.

Gateway

Now I will create the gateway.

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  name: bookinfo-gateway
spec:
  selector:
    istio: ingressgateway
  servers:
    - port:
        number: 80
        name: http
        protocol: HTTP
      hosts:
        - '*'

So here, I created the gateway with the name bookinfo-gateway that is just a gateway where it is going to get applied within the default Istio controller ingress gateway and it is going to allow the protocol http that is in port 80 from all the host (* means all).

So here the gateway, it will get created. It’s going to allow all the host coming from the port 80. And this is where the virtual service going to get created and that virtual service is for the gateway coming from all the host.

Virtual Service
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: bookinfo
spec:
  hosts:
    - '*'
  gateways:
    - bookinfo-gateway
  http:
    - match:
        - uri:
            exact: /productpage
        - uri:
            prefix: /static
        - uri:
            exact: /login
        - uri:
            exact: /logout
        - uri:
            prefix: /api/v1/products
      route:
        - destination:
            host: productpage
            port:
              number: 9080

So here it is going to match for this specific suffix within the uri. Whenever it is matching this specific suffix /product page, /static, /login, /logout and /api/v1/products it will land up with the product page host. And in our case that is the service that’s going to run within the cluster in the port 9080.

[email protected]:~/istio-1.10.0# kubectl get services
NAME          TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
details       ClusterIP   10.97.32.38              9080/TCP   32m
kubernetes    ClusterIP   10.96.0.1                443/TCP    14d
productpage   ClusterIP   10.104.193.125           9080/TCP   32m
ratings       ClusterIP   10.98.209.205            9080/TCP   32m
reviews       ClusterIP   10.102.73.7              9080/TCP   32m

Here I am going to have a service running with the name productpage 9080.

So anything that is landing with this specific uri will be taken to this particular host or the pod having this specific host and the port 9080 and any request coming into the cluster from the port 80 will be allowed and I’m going to allow from all the host.

So basically, I’m going to create a gateway to allow all host from port 80 and I will be having a virtual service with all the rules in terms of what pod to be taken into. Now virtual service also I will be creating it. And along with that, I will be having the destination rules within the virtual service.

Create Destination Rules

Let me go ahead and create the destination rules. Let me go ahead and create the destination rules that is going to define within that specific service, what are all the subsets can be used.

[email protected]:~/istio-1.10.0# kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/destination-rule-all.yaml
destinationrule.networking.istio.io/productpage created
destinationrule.networking.istio.io/reviews created
destinationrule.networking.istio.io/ratings created
destinationrule.networking.istio.io/details created

So the destination rules for the productpage, reviews, ratings and details will get created. Now I can go ahead and get what are all the destination rules that have been created using the command kubectl get destinationrules.

[email protected]:~/istio-1.10.0# kubectl get destinationrules
NAME          HOST          AGE
details       details       106s
productpage   productpage   106s
ratings       ratings       106s
reviews       reviews       106s

So these are the destination rules that have been created.

Create Gateway and Virtual Service

Now, I can go ahead and create the gateway and the virtual service. So I will create bookinfo-gateway with where I will allow all the traffic from all the host in the port 80. And I am going to create virtual service where it is going to route all the traffic coming from this specific uri into that specific host.

[email protected]:~/istio-1.10.0# kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/bookinfo-gateway.yaml
gateway.networking.istio.io/bookinfo-gateway created
virtualservice.networking.istio.io/bookinfo created

Don’t get confused with the virtual service and the service running within the Kubernetes. I can go ahead and list what are all the virtual service that got created with the following command

[email protected]:~/istio-1.10.0# kubectl get virtualservices
NAME       GATEWAYS               HOSTS   AGE
bookinfo   ["bookinfo-gateway"]   ["*"]   4m38s

So I do have the virtual services where I am going to allow from all the host. And I can list what are all the gateway that got created using the following command

[email protected]:~/istio-1.10.0# kubectl get gateway
NAME               AGE
bookinfo-gateway   5m31s

So I do have the gateway as well.

Export Environment Variables
1. INGRESS_HOST

Since I am running within the same machine minikube, I can use the minikube IP address. I am going to assign the minikube IP address to a environmental variable INGRESS_HOST.

[email protected]:~# export INGRESS_HOST=$(minikube ip)

Within the machine I need to route all the traffic to a specific port and that particular port details will get routed to the port 80 of the ingress controller.

2. INGRESS_PORT

Now Let me go ahead and get that specific port i.e., the Ingress port using this specific command. So I can use the ingress gateway, get the json path and grep the port at which the http protocol is listening to. So I’m going to use the command kubectl within the namespace istio system.

[email protected]:~# export INGRESS_PORT=$(kubectl -n istio-system get service istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.spec.ports[?(@.name=="http2")].nodePort}')

Here I’m going to get the service istio-ingressgateway and get the output as a json path. Within that I’m going to get the port and store it in the variable INGRESS_PORT.

Let me go ahead and echo this particular variable.

[email protected]:~# echo $INGRESS_HOST
192.168.1.50

So this is the IP address and it’s going to assign the internal IP address. In case if I am using curl I can use the internal IP address or otherwise I need to use the external IP address.

Let me go ahead and echo the port.

[email protected]:~# echo $INGRESS_PORT 
31214

So it is responding in the port 31214.

SECURE_INGRESS_PORT

In case if I wanted to get the secure port, I can go ahead and export that in a specific variable by grepping the name as https and store it in this specific variable.

[email protected]:~# export SECURE_INGRESS_PORT=$(kubectl -n istio-system get service istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.spec.ports[?(@.name=="https")].nodePort}')

I can echo that as well, but I am not going to use in this particular demo.

[email protected]:~# echo $SECURE_INGRESS_PORT
32375

So It’s responding in the port 32375.

TCP_INGRESS_PORT

In case if I wanted the TCP I can go ahead and use the name as TCP. I will be getting the output and get stored within the variable TCP_INGRESS_PORT.

[email protected]:~# export TCP_INGRESS_PORT=$(kubectl -n istio-system get service istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.spec.ports[?(@.name=="tcp")].nodePort}')

Let me echo that as well.

[email protected]:~# echo $TCP_INGRESS_PORT 
30845

And in the future use cases, I will be executing all this command in a single go. So that I will be getting the entire URL. Now what I can do, I can generate the URL using the INGRESS_HOST and the INGRESS_PORT and store it in the variable GATEWAY_URL.

[email protected]:~# export GATEWAY_URL=$INGRESS_HOST:$INGRESS_PORT

So I’m going to use it with the curl command. So in case if I am using the curl command I should be getting the title. Let me go ahead and test it out quickly curl. And I’m going to access the GATEWAY_URL/product page. I will grep the title.

[email protected]:~# curl -s "http://${GATEWAY_URL}/productpage" | grep -o "<title>.*</title>"
Simple Bookstore App

So I do have the title that means the host, port and the URL is correct. As well as the application is also functioning properly. I’m going to use this specific application and do the demo of traffic shifting.

Summary

In a quick summary, we discussed about how to use the virtual services, destination rules and the gateway and how that’s getting created and what is the use of it within the Istio enabled cluster and how to generate the gateway url for our sample application.

Book Details Sample Application

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